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Language DescriptionEdit

  • Phonological Constraints - "C + V + (ʔ) + (C)"
  • OSV - Sentence Component Structure
  • Isolating Morphology
  • Highly Analytic Sentence Composition

PhonologyEdit

See International Phonetic Alphabet for further details.

ConsonantEdit

  Labial Alveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Stop         ' [ʔ]
Ejective p [p'] t [t'] k [k'] q [q']  
Implosive b [ɓ] d [ɗ] g [ɠ] ǥ [ʛ]  
Fricative-Ejective   s [s'] x [x'] ẍ [χ']
Trill-Ejective ƀ [ʙ']       ɍ [ʀ']
Click ḃ [ʘ͡ʔ] ḋ [ǃ͡ʔ]      

VowelsEdit

  Front Near-Front Near-Back Back
Close i     u
Near-Close   ɪ ʊ  
Close-Mid e     o

GrammarEdit

VerbsEdit

TenseEdit

  • Past - "ḃu+ [ʘ͡ʔu]"
  • Continual - "ḋẽ+ [ǃ͡ʔeɪ]"
  • Future - "tib+ [t'iɓ]"

MoodEdit

  • Imperative - "+si't [s'iʔt']"
  • Interrogative - "+kũǥ [k'uʊʛ]"

NounsEdit

CaseEdit

  • Genitive - "+pid [p'iɗ]"
  • Possessive - "+ẍu' [χ'uʔ]"

AdjectivesEdit

ParticlesEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

  • First - "ḃĩ'tu' [ʘ͡ʔiɪʔt'uʔ]"
  • Second - "ḃi'õ' [ʘ͡ʔiʔoʊʔ]"
  • Third - "ḋẽ'u't [ǃ͡ʔeɪʔuʔt']'"

Table of CorrelativesEdit

  Interrogative (ku [k'u]) Demonstrative Quantifier
Proximal (gi' [ɠiʔ]) Distal (bũ'k [ɓuʊʔk']) Existential (sẽ [s'eɪ]) Elective (ḃe [ʘ͡ʔe]) Universal (ki't [k'iʔt']) Negative (ƀi [ʙ'i])
Determiner (ẍĩ [χ'iɪ]) ẍĩku [χ'iɪk'u] ẍĩgi' [χ'iɪɠiʔ] ẍĩbũ'k [χ'iɪɓuʊʔk'] ẍĩsẽ [χ'iɪs'eɪ] ẍĩḃe [χ'iɪʘ͡ʔe] ẍĩki't [χ'iɪk'iʔt'] ẍĩƀi [χ'iɪʙ'i]
Pronoun Object (ḃuq [ʘ͡ʔuq']) ḃuqku [ʘ͡ʔuq'k'u] ḃuqgi' [ʘ͡ʔuq'ɠiʔ] ḃuqbũ'k [ʘ͡ʔuq'ɓuʊʔk'] ḃuqsẽ [ʘ͡ʔuq's'eɪ] ḃuqḃe [ʘ͡ʔuq'ʘ͡ʔe] ḃuqki't [ʘ͡ʔuq'k'iʔt'] ḃuqƀi [ʘ͡ʔuq'ʙ'i]
Out of (tẽ' [t'eɪʔ]) tẽ'ku [t'eɪʔk'u] tẽ'gi' [t'eɪʔɠiʔ] tẽ'bũ'k [t'eɪʔɓuʊʔk'] tẽ'sẽ [t'eɪʔs'eɪ] tẽ'ḃe [t'eɪʔʘ͡ʔe] tẽ'ki't [t'eɪʔk'iʔt'] tẽ'ƀi [t'eɪʔʙ'i]
Pro-Adverb Location (kĩ [k'iɪ]) kĩku [k'iɪk'u] kĩgi' [k'iɪɠiʔ] kĩbũ'k [k'iɪɓuʊʔk'] kĩsẽ [k'iɪs'eɪ] kĩḃe [k'iɪʘ͡ʔe] kĩki't [k'iɪk'iʔt'] kĩƀi [k'iɪʙ'i]
Time (to [t'o]) toku [t'ok'u] togi' [t'oɠiʔ] tobũ'k [t'oɓuʊʔk'] tosẽ [t'os'eɪ] toḃe [t'oʘ͡ʔe] toki't [t'ok'iʔt'] toƀi [t'oʙ'i]
Manner (ḋi'ǥ [ǃ͡ʔiʔʛ]) ḋi'ǥku [ǃ͡ʔiʔʛk'u] ḋi'ǥgi' [ǃ͡ʔiʔʛɠiʔ] ḋi'ǥbũ'k [ǃ͡ʔiʔʛɓuʊʔk'] ḋi'ǥsẽ [ǃ͡ʔiʔʛs'eɪ] ḋi'ǥḃe [ǃ͡ʔiʔʛʘ͡ʔe] ḋi'ǥki't [ǃ͡ʔiʔʛk'iʔt'] ḋi'ǥƀi [ǃ͡ʔiʔʛʙ'i]
Reason (qi [q'i]) qiku [q'ik'u] qigi' [q'iɠiʔ] qibũ'k [q'iɓuʊʔk'] qisẽ [q'is'eɪ] qiḃe [q'iʘ͡ʔe] qiki't [q'ik'iʔt'] qiƀi [q'iʙ'i]

See AlsoEdit

Mouth StructuresEdit

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